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Why Do We Cry Sad Tears?

Why do we cry? It’s weird. Humans leak water out of their faces when they get sad. Are we the only animals that do this? What does it mean? What is it for? Here’s the science of human tears!

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!



The 10 Best Sci-Fi Movies on Netflix Right Now

If you’re in the mood for some speculative fiction and your pile of Arthur C. Clarke books has been exhausted, you could do worse than to tune into Netflix. The streaming service is constantly acquiring new films in the sci-fi and fantasy genres that should satisfy most fans of alternative futures. Here are 10 of the best sci-fi movies on Netflix right now.00:2201:07

1. HER (2013)

The perils of falling in love with artificial intelligence is at the core of Her, which features a terrific performance by Joaquin Phoenix as a rumpled office worker who finds his soulmate in something without a soul: An Alexa-esque disembodied voice (Scarlett Johansson).

2. ANON (2018)

Clive Owen and Amanda Seyfried appear in this Netflix original about a future in which privacy has been rendered obsolete. While there wouldn’t appear to be any possible downside, a killer who manages to avoid being detected by widespread surveillance turns into a problem for Owen.

3. EX MACHINA (2015)

Alex Garland’s quiet—and quietly subversive—robot parable didn’t arrive with all the hype of a major studio sci-fi release but still manages to outdo most big-budget android tales. As the enigmatic CEO of a robotics company, Oscar Isaac uses an underling (Domhnall Gleeson) to test his eerily lifelike AI (Alicia Vikander). But Gleeson may be the one who’s really being tested.


If The Handmaid’s Tale hasn’t sated your appetite for squirm-inducing dystopian fiction, consider Children of Men, which features Clive Owen as a bureaucrat living in a future where women are incapable of getting pregnant. When a young woman develops a baby bump, Owen struggles to help her navigate a society that considers fertility to be an unforgivable burden.


Soon we’ll have a movie for every single major or minor incident ever depicted in the Star Wars universe. For now, we’ll have to settle for this one-off that explains how the Rebel Alliance got their hands on the plans for the Death Star.

6. MOON (2009)

Sam Rockwell stars in this low-key potboiler from director Duncan Jones (David Bowie‘s son) about a man coming to the end of a solitary assignment on the moon who begins to see and hear things he shouldn’t. Apparently, space madness is a thing.

7. KING KONG (2005)

Director Peter Jackson (The Lord of the Rings) set his considerable sights on a remake of the 1933 classic, with the title gorilla pestered and exploited by opportunistic humans.


Marvel’s tale of a misfit band of space jockeys was a surprise hit in 2014. The sequel offers more Groot, more Rocket Raccoon, and the addition of Kurt Russell as a human manifestation of an entire sentient planet.

9. STARDUST (2007)

Director Matthew Vaughn’s adaptation of the Neil Gaiman novel features Michelle Pfeiffer and Robert De Niro as supporting players in the tale of a man (a pre-Daredevil Charlie Cox) in search of a fallen star to gift to his love.


The year 1977 was a good one for sci-fi and fantasy fans. Following the release of Star WarsSteven Spielberg etched a permanent place of prominence in his filmography with Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the rare alien-arrival film that doesn’t end with a show of military force. Richard Dreyfuss, who co-starred in the director’s 1975 hit Jaws, is Roy Neary, an electrician with an obsession over extraterrestrial contact. Dreyfuss lobbied hard for the role, which was offered to (and turned down by) Steve McQueen, Al Pacino, and Jack Nicholson.

Aliens, robots, a giant ape, and a star war should be on your streaming agenda.

from Mental Floss

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!



8 Proper Facts About Jane Austen


Austen was born in Steventon, Hampshire, England on December 16, 1775 to George Austen, a rector, and Cassandra Austen. The second-youngest in a brood of eight kids, Austen developed a love for the written word partially as a result of George’s vast home library. When she wasn’t reading, Austen was supplied with writing tools by George to nurture her interests along. Later, George would send his daughters to a boarding school to further their education. When Austen penned First Impressions, the book that would become Pride and Prejudice, in 1797, a proud George took it to a London publisher named Thomas Cadell for review. Cadell rejected it unread. It’s not clear if Jane was even aware that George approached Cadell on her behalf.

Much later, in 1810, her brother Henry would act as her literary agent, selling Sense and Sensibility to London publisher Thomas Egerton.


From Sense and Sensibility through Emma, Austen’s published works neverbore her name. Sense and Sensibility carried the byline of “A Lady,” while later works like Pride and Prejudice featured credits like, “By the Author of Sense and Sensibility.” It’s likely Austen chose anonymity because female novelists were frowned upon for having selected what was viewed at the time as a potentially lewd, male-dominated pursuit. If she was interrupted while writing, she would quickly conceal her papers to avoid being asked about her work. Austen was first identified in print following her death in 1817; her brother Henry wrote a eulogy to accompany the posthumous publications of Persuasion and Northanger Abbey.


Many of Austen’s characters carry great agency in their lives, and Austen scholars enjoy pointing to the fact that Austen herself bucked convention when it came to affairs of the heart. The year after her family’s move to the city of Bath in 1801, Austen received a proposal of marriage from Harris Bigg-Wither, a financially prosperous childhood friend. Austen accepted but quickly had second thoughts. Though his money would have provided for her and her family (and, at the time, she was 27 and unpublished, meaning she had no outside income and was fast approaching Georgian-era spinster status), Austen decided that a union motivated on her part by economics wasn’t worthwhile. She turned the proposal down the following day and later cautioned her niece about marrying for any reason other than love. “Anything is to be preferred or endured rather than marrying without affection,” she wrote.


Because so little of Austen’s writing outside of her novels survives—her sister, Cassandra, purportedly destroyed much of her correspondence in an effort to keep some of Austen’s scathing opinions away from polite society—it can be hard to assign motivations or emotions to some of her major milestones in life. But one thing appears clear: When her family moved to Bath and subsequently kept relocating following her father’s death in 1805, Austen’s writing habits were severely disrupted. Once prolific—she completed three of her novels by 1801—a lack of a routine kept her from producing work for roughly 10 years. It wasn’t until she felt her home life was stable after moving into property owned by her brother, Edward, that Austen resumed her career.


Austen had none of the advancements that would go on to make a writer’s life easier, like typewriters, computers, or Starbucks. In at least one case, her manuscript edits were accomplished using the time-consuming and prickly method of straight pins. For an unfinished novel titled The Watsons, Austen took the pins and used them to fasten revisions to the pages of areas that were in need of correction or rewrites. The practice dates back to the 17th century.


In Austen’s time, beer was the drink of choice, and like the rest of her family, Austen could brew her own beer. Her specialty was spruce beer, which was made with molasses for a slightly sweeter taste.

Austen was also a fan of making mead—she once lamented to her sister, “there is no honey this year. Bad news for us. We must husband our present stock of mead, and I am sorry to perceive that our twenty gallons is very nearly out. I cannot comprehend how the fourteen gallons could last so long.”


Austen lived to see only four of her six novels published. She died on July 18, 1817 at the age of 41 following complaints of symptoms that medical historians have long felt pointed to Addison’s disease or Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In 2017, the British Library floated a different theory—that Austen was poisoned by arsenic in her drinking water due to a polluted supply or possibly accidental ingestion due to mismanaged medication. The Library put forth the idea based on Austen’s notoriously poor eyesight (which they say may have been the result of cataracts) as well as her written complaint of skin discoloration. Both can be indicative of arsenic exposure. Critics of the theory say the evidence is scant and that there is equal reason to believe a disease was the cause of her death.


As Matthew Birkhold of Electric Lit points out, judges seem to have a bit of a preoccupation with the works of Austen. Birkhold found 27 instances of a judge’s written ruling invoking the name or words of the author, joining a rather exclusive club of female writers who tend to pop up in judicial decisions. (Harper Lee and Mary Shelley round out the top three.) According to Birkhold, jurists often use Austen as a kind of shorthand to explain matters involving relationships or class distinctions. Half of the decisions used the opening line from Pride and Prejudice: “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be in want of a wife.” The sentence is often rewritten to reflect the specifics of a case: “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a recently widowed woman in possession of a good fortune must be in want of an estate planner,” as one 2008 tax court case put it.

Others invoke characters like Fitzwilliam Darcy to compare or contrast the litigant’s romantic situation. In most cases, the intent is clear, with authors realizing that their readers consider Austen’s name synonymous with literary—and hopefully judicial—wisdom.

At one point, she took a full decade off between novels.

from Mental Floss

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2018, in 5 minutes – Video

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!


100 palabras de Navidad en inglés

Aprende más de 100 palabras navideñas en inglés con esta lista que tenemos para ti.



Candy cane – Bastón de caramelo

Cava – Cava

Champagne – Champaña

Chestnuts – Castañas

Christmas dinner – Cena de Navidad

Christmas basket – Cesta de Navidad

Cookie – Galleta

Eggnog – Rompope (con o sin licor)

Fruitcake – Pastel de frutas/Budín inglés

Gingerbread – Pan de jengibre

Gingerbread house – Casa de pan de jengibre

Gingerbread man – Hombre de pan de jengibre

Hot chocolate – Chocolate caliente

King Prawns – Langostinos

Marzipan – Mazapán

Pie – Pie. Receta de pie de manzana.

Polvorones – Polvorones. No existe una traducción al inglés, así que conservan su nombre en español.

Rosca de Reyes – Rosca de Reyes. No hay traducción y no es una costumbre en los países anglófonos.

Turkey – Pavo

Turron – Turrón. No hay traducción.


Cabin in the Woods, Winter, Christmas Lights


Darwin Wiggett/Getty Images


Frosty – Escarchado

Ice – Hielo

Snow – Nieve

Snowball – Bola de nieve

Snowfall – Una nevada

Snowflake – Copo de nieve

Snowman – Hombre de nieve

Snowy – Nevado

Personajes navideños



Nutcrackers” (CC BY 2.0) by boyBacon


Angels – Ángeles

Baby Jesus – El niño Jesús

Elf – Duende

Elves – Duendes. Cómo escribir palabras en plural en inglés.

Family – Familia

Frosty the Snowman – Frosty el hombre de nieve. Protagonista de una canción popular navideña.

Grinch – El Grinch. Personaje navideño creado por Dr. Seuss

Guest – Invitado

Jack Frost – Padre Invierno

Jesus – Jesús

Joseph – José

Nutcracker – Cazcanueces

Rudolph – Rudolph el reno

Saint – Un santo

Santa’s helpers – Ayudantes de Santa Claus

Santa Claus – Santa Claus

Scrooge – Scrooge. Protagonista de la novela Cuento de Navidad de Charles Dickens.

Shepherds – Pastores

The Christmas Spirit – El Espíritu Navideño

Three Kings/Three Wise Men – Los Tres Reyes Magos

Virgin Mary – La Virgen María

Decoraciones navideñas

Living room decorated for Christmas


 dszc/Getty Images


Bells  – Campanas

Candle – Vela

Christmas tree – Árbol de Navidad

Decorations – Adornos / Decoraciones

Garland – Guirnalda

Lights – Luces

Ornament – Objeto de decoración

Ribbon – Listón

Regalos navideños

Boy opening gifts


Gary John Norman/Getty Images


Bow – Moño

Box – Caja

Coal – Carbón

Gift – Regalo

Present – Regalo

Santa’s list – Lista de Santa Claus

Toy – Juguete

Wrapping paper – Papel de envolver

Animales y plantas



Per Breiehagen/Getty Images


Goose – Ganzo

King Prawns – Langostinos

Pine tree – Pino

Pinecone – Cono

Reindeer – Reno

Tree – Árbol

Turkey – Pavo

Santa Claus

Santa Claus


 Andrew Burton/Getty Images


Chimney – Chimenea

Elf – Duende

Elves – Duendes

Grinch – El Grinch

North Pole – El Polo Norte

Santa’s helpers – Ayudantes de Santa Claus

Santa Claus – Santa Claus

Santa’s workshop – Taller de Santa Claus

Sleigh – Trineo

Los Reyes Magos

Ornamento de Navidad con siluetas de los Reyes Magos


 cstar55/Getty Images


Frankincense – Incienso

Gold – Oro

Myrrh – Mirra


Christmas sweater


Steve Debenport/Getty Images


Boots – Botas

Ice skates – Patines de hielo

Gloves – Guantes

Jacket – Chamarra/Chaqueta

Mittens – Mitones

Scarf – Bufanda

Socks – Calcetines

Stockings – Calcetas

Sweater – Suéter


The Winchester Choristers Go Ice Skating


 Matt Cardy/Getty Images


Buy – Comprar

Celebrate – Celebrar

Give – Dar

Receive – Recibir

Rejoice – Regocijar/Alegrar

Shopping – Comprando/Compras

Skate – Patinar

Unwrap – Desenvolver

Visit – Visitar

Wish – Deseo / Desear

Wrap – Envolver


New Year's Eve in Times Square


Stephanie Keith/Getty Images


Christmas Day – Día de Navidad

Christmas Eve – Nochebuena

Christmas holidays – Las vacaciones de Navidad

December 28th – Día de los Santos Inocentes. En Estados Unidos se llama April Fool’s Day y se celebra el 1 de abril.

Holidays – Vacaciones

January 6th – Día de Reyes. No se celebra el día de Reyes en los países anglófonos.

New Year’s Day – Día de año nuevo

New Year’s Eve – Nochevieja

Vacation – Vacación

Winter – Invierno

Xmas – Abreviación de “Navidad”

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Person writing christmas cards


 Dan Brownsword/Getty Images


Christmas card – Tarjeta de Navidad

Happy New Year! – ¡Feliz Año Nuevo!

Hug – Abrazo

Joy – Alegría

Love – Amor

Merry Christmas! – ¡Feliz Navidad!

Greetings – Felicitaciones

Canciones navideñas

Christmas carol singers


 Hulton Archive/Getty Images


Christmas carol – Villancico/Canto para pedir posada

Jingle Bells – Que suenen las campanas

Frosty the Snowman – Frosty el hombre de nieve

We Wish You a Merry Christmas – Te deseamos una feliz navidad

So This is Christmas – Así que esto es la Navidad

Santa Claus is Comming to Town – Santa Claus viene al pueblo

O Christmas Tree – O árbol de Navidad

Rudolph The Red Nose Reindeer – Rudolph el reno con la nariz roja

Silent Night – Noche Silenciosa

Let it Snow – Que nieve

All I Want for Christmas is You – Todo lo que quiero por Navidad eres tú.

Vocabulario religioso

Nativity scene


Panoramic Images/Getty Images


Angels – Ángeles

Baby Jesus – El niño Jesús

Bethlehem – La ciudad de Belén

Christian – Cristiano

Charity – Caridad

Crib – Cuna

Holy – adj. Santo

Hope – Esperanza

Jerusalem – Jerusalén

Jesus – Jesús

Joseph – José

Midnight Mass – Misa del gallo

Nativity scene – Un belén/pesebre

Saint – Un santo

Shepherds – Pastores

Spirit – Espíritu

Star – Estrella

The Star of Bethlehem – La estrella de Belén

Three Kings/The Three Wise Men – Los Tres Reyes Magos

Tradition – Tradición

Virgin Mary – La Virgen María

Otras tradiciones navideñas

Santa Claus getting a kiss under the mistletoe


 E. Dean/Getty Images


Mistletoe – Muérdago

Pageant – Desfile

Parade – Desfile

Party – Fiesta

Ritual – Ritual

Sales – Rebajas

Source: 100 palabras de Navidad en inglés y español

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!

Does time exist? – Andrew Zimmerman Jones

¿Alguna vez te preguntaste si el tiempo existe?

The earliest time measurements were observations of cycles of the natural world, using patterns of changes from day to night and season to season to build calendars. More precise time-keeping eventually came along to put time in more convenient boxes. But what exactly are we measuring? Andrew Zimmerman Jones contemplates whether time is something that physically exists or is just in our heads. Lesson by Andrew Zimmerman Jones, directed by Nice Shoes.

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!



The Time German and Russian WWI Soldiers Banded Together to Fight Wolves

During the winter of 1917, Russian and German soldiers fighting in the dreary trenches of the Great War’s Eastern Front had a lot to fear: enemy bullets, trench foot, frostbite, countless diseases, shrapnel, bayonets, tanks, sniper fire. Oh, and wolves.

In February of that year, a dispatch from Berlin noted that large packs of wolves were creeping from the forests of Lithuania and Volhynia into the interior of the German Empire, not far from the front lines. Like so many living creatures, the animals had been driven from their homes by the war and were now simply looking for something to eat. “As the beasts are very hungry, they penetrate into the villages and kill calves, sheep, goats, and other livestock,” the report, which appeared in the El Paso Herald, says. “In two cases children have been attacked by them.”

According to another dispatch out of St. Petersburg, the wolves were such a nuisance on the battlefield that they were one of the few things that could bring soldiers from both sides together. “Parties of Russian and German scouts met recently and were hotly engaged in a skirmish when a large pack of wolves dashed on the scene and attacked the wounded,” the report says, according to the Oklahoma City Times. “Hostilities were at once suspended and Germans and Russians instinctively attacked the pack, killing about 50 wolves.” It was an unspoken agreement among snipers that, if the Russians and Germans decided to engage in a collective wolf-hunt, all firing would cease.

Take this July 1917 New York Times report describing how soldiers in the Kovno-Wilna Minsk district (near modern Vilnius, Lithuania) decided to cease hostilities to fight this furry common enemy:

“Poison, rifle fire, hand grenades, and even machine guns were successively tried in attempts to eradicate the nuisance. But all to no avail. The wolves—nowhere to be found quite so large and powerful as in Russia—were desperate in their hunger and regardless of danger. Fresh packs would appear in place of those that were killed by the Russian and German troops.

“As a last resort, the two adversaries, with the consent of their commanders, entered into negotiations for an armistice and joined forces to overcome the wolf plague. For a short time there was peace. And in no haphazard fashion was the task of vanquishing the mutual foe undertaken. The wolves were gradually rounded up, and eventually several hundred of them were killed. The others fled in all directions, making their escape from carnage the like of which they had never encountered.”

Afterward, the soldiers presumably returned to their posts and resumed pointing their rifles at a more violent and dangerous enemy—each other

WWI fighters had a lot to fear in battle—but few thought they’d be battling wolves.

from Mental Floss

Si quieres aprender inglés más rápido, contáctanos y te platicamos todo acerca de nuestra metodología única donde adaptamos nuestras clases 100% en inglés a tus habilidades más desarrolladas para que sea más sencillo y rápido para ti aprender inglés. Es tan efectivo que GARANTIZAMOS nuestro Curso de Inglés General. ¡Además este mes también puedes hacer el TEST DE INGLÉS ONLINE GRATIS para conocer tu nivel de inglés y recibir asesoría sobre cómo mejorarlo rápidamente. ¡INVIERTE EN TI ESTE 2019!


15 Surprising Facts About Scarface

Say hello to our little list. Here are a few facts to break out at your next screening of Scarface, Brian De Palma’s gangsters-and-cocaine classic, which arrived in theaters on this day in 1983.


Brian De Palma’s Scarface is a loose remake of the 1932 movie of the same name, which is also about the rise and fall of an American immigrant gangster. The producer of the 1983 version, Martin Bregman, saw the original on late night TV and thought the idea could be modernized—though it still pays respect to the original film. De Palma’s flick is dedicated to the original film’s director, Howard Hawks, and screenwriter, Ben Hecht.


At one point in the film’s production, Sidney Lumet—the socially conscious director of such classics as Dog Day Afternoon and 12 Angry Men—was brought on as its director. “Sidney Lumet came up with the idea of what’s happening today in Miami, and it inspired Bregman,” Pacino toldEmpire Magazine. “He and Oliver Stone got together and produced a script that had a lot of energy and was very well written. Oliver Stone was writing about stuff that was touching on things that were going on in the world, he was in touch with that energy and that rage and that underbelly.”


Producer Bregman—who passed away on June 16, 2018—offered relative newcomer Oliver Stone a chance to overhaul the screenplay. But Stone, who was still reeling from the box office disappointment of his film, The Hand, wasn’t interested. “I didn’t like the original movie that much,” Stone told Creative Screenwriting. “It didn’t really hit me at all and I had no desire to make another Italian gangster picture because so many had been done so well, there would be no point to it. The origin of it, according to Marty Bregman, [was that] Al had seen the ’30s version on television, he loved it and expressed to Marty as his long time mentor/partner that he’d like to do a role like that. So Marty presented it to me and I had no interest in doing a period piece.”

But when Bregman contacted Stone again about the project later, his opinion changed. “Sidney Lumet had stepped into the deal,” Stone said. “Sidney had a great idea to take the 1930s American prohibition gangster movie and make it into a modern immigrant gangster movie dealing with the same problems that we had then, that we’re prohibiting drugs instead of alcohol. There’s a prohibition against drugs that’s created the same criminal class as (prohibition of alcohol) created the Mafia. It was a remarkable idea.”


While the chance to work with Lumet was part of what lured Stone to the project, it was his script that ultimately led to the director’s departure from the film. According to Stone: “Sidney Lumet hated my script. I don’t know if he’d say that in public himself, I sound like a petulant screenwriter saying that, I’d rather not say that word. Let me say that Sidney did not understand my script, whereas Bregman wanted to continue in that direction with Al.”


In order to create the most accurate picture possible, Stone spent time in Florida and the Caribbean interviewing people on both sides of the law for research. “It got hairy,” Stone admitted of the research process. “It gave me all this color. I wanted to do a sun-drenched, tropical Third World gangster, cigar, sexy Miami movie.”

Unfortunately, while penning the screenplay, Stone was also dealing with his own cocaine habit, which gave him an insight into what the drug can do to users. Stone actually tried to kick his habit by leaving the country to complete the script so he could be far away from his access to the drug.

“I moved to Paris and got out of the cocaine world too because that was another problem for me,” he said. “I was doing coke at the time, and I really regretted it. I got into a habit of it and I was an addictive personality. I did it, not to an extreme or to a place where I was as destructive as some people, but certainly to where I was going stale mentally. I moved out of L.A. with my wife at the time and moved back to France to try and get into another world and see the world differently. And I wrote the script totally f***ing cold sober.”


De Palma was hesitant to audition the relatively untested Pfeiffer because at the time she was best known for the box office bomb Grease 2. Glenn Close, Geena Davis, Carrie Fisher, Kelly McGillis, Sharon Stone and Sigourney Weaver were all considered for the role of Elvira, but Bregman pushed for Pfeiffer to audition and she got the part.


According to the Family Media Guide, which monitors profanity, sexual content, and violence in movies, Scarface features 207 uses of the “F” word, which works out to about 1.21 F-bombs per minute. In 2014, Martin Scorsese more than doubled that with a record-setting 506 F-bombsthrown in The Wolf of Wall Street.


Stone, who was a San Francisco 49ers fan, named the character of Tony Montana after Joe Montana, his favorite football player.


Hector, the Colombian gangster who threatens Tony with the chainsaw, refers to Tony as “cara cicatriz,” meaning “scar face” in Spanish.

That chainsaw scene, by the way, was based on a real incident. To research the movie, Stone embedded himself with Miami law enforcement and based the infamous chainsaw sequence on a gangland story he heard from the Miami-Dade County police.


The film was originally going to be shot entirely on location in Miami, but protests by the local Cuban-American community forced the movie to leave Miami two weeks into production. Besides footage from those two weeks, the rest of the movie was shot in Los Angeles, New York, and Santa Barbara.


Though there has long been a myth that Pacino snorted real cocaine on camera for Scarface, the “cocaine” used in the movie was supposedly powdered milk (even if De Palma has never officially stated what the crew used as a drug stand-in). But just because it wasn’t real doesn’t mean that it didn’t create problems for Pacino’s nasal passages. “For years after, I have had things up in there,” Pacino said in 2015. “I don’t know what happened to my nose, but it’s changed.”



In the film’s very bloody conclusion, Montana famously asks the assailants who’ve invaded his home to “say hello to my little friend,” which happens to be a very large gun. That gun took a beating from all the blanks it had to fire, so much so that Pacino ended up burning his hand on its barrel. “My hand stuck to that sucker,” he said. Ultimately, the actor—and his bandaged hands—had to sit out some of the action in the last few weeks of production.


De Palma and Spielberg had been friends since the two began making studio movies in the mid-1970s, and they made a habit of visiting each other’s sets. Spielberg was on hand for one of the days of shooting the Colombians’ initial attack on Tony Montana’s house at the end of the movie, so De Palma let Spielberg direct the low-angle shot where the attackers first enter the house.


In order to heighten the severity of the gunfire, De Palma and the special effects coordinators created a mechanism to synchronize the gunfire with the open shutter on the movie camera to show the huge muzzle flash coming from the guns in the final shootout.


The trust fund the former Iraqi dictator set up to launder money was called “Montana Management,” a nod to the company Tony uses to launder money in the movie.

Brian De Palma’s gangsters-and-cocaine classic arrived in theaters 35 years ago today.

from Mental Floss


40 Excellent E-Words To Enlarge Your Vocabulary


The history of the letter E can be traced all the way back to an Egyptian hieroglyphic that probably depicted a praying or celebrating man, with the open horizontal lines of an “E” being the modern-day descendants of his arms or legs. Over time, this original pictogram simplified massively: the Phoenicians adopted it and made it into nothing more than a slanted, back-to-front, slightly elongated E-shape, which they used to represent their letter he. This in turn was rotated, truncated, and straightened up to form the Greek letter epsilon, E, and it’s from there (via Latin) that E as we know it ended up in English.00:0801:12

E is the most frequently used letter in the English language—in fact, it’s held the top spot in the English language ever since the Old English period [PDF]. It’s nearly 57 times more common than the least-used letter, Q, and is the most-used letter in a host of other languages, including French, German, Spanish, Dutch, Italian, and Latin. E accounts for around 11 percent of all the language you’ll ever use. Not only that, but you can expect it to begin just under four percent of all the words in a dictionary—including the 40 extra-special E-words explained here.


An old Scots dialect word meaning “to argue” or “to thrash out a bargain.” Derived from a local pronunciation of argle-bargle.


The cash used to secure a deal or a bargain? That’s earnest money.


An 18th-century euphemism for a grave. To take an earth-bath meant to be buried. Coffins, meanwhile, were nicknamed eternity-boxes.


An old Scots dialect word for someone who can’t be relied upon. It literally means “east-west”—namely, someone who is inconstant, or changes like the wind.


An old English dialect word meaning “easygoing” or “laid back.”


A 17th-century word meaning “to shake violently.” Not to be confused with embrangle, which means “to confuse” or “to entangle.”


We might use ebullience to mean “enthusiasm” or “liveliness,” but it literally means “boiling” or “boiling hot.” Derived from the same root, to ebullate is to boil, while the formation of bubbles in a boiling liquid is called ebullism.


Nineteenth-century slang for very tight trousers. Tight shoes were known as excruciators.


An old Yorkshire dialect word for a pointless argument. Likewise, an egg-battle is someone who pushes other people to quarrel or argue.


An old Scots word meaning “the act of wasting time in bad company.”


Derived from the image of someone “crooking” (i.e. bending) their elbow to raise their hand to their mouth, an elbow-crooker is a drunk or a hard drinker. Whereas …


… an elbow-shaker is a prolific gambler, derived from the image of someone shaking dice.


If something or someone is elenge, then it’s remote, isolated, or lonely.


Derived from a French word meaning “praise,” if you’re elozable then you’re susceptible to flattery.


Whereas elsewhere means “somewhere else,” elsewhat means “something else.” It’s one of a number of else words to have long fallen out of use in English, including elsewards (“heading towards somewhere else”), elsewhen (“at another time”), elsewhence (“from somewhere else”), and elsehow (“in some other way”).

16. ELT

To elt is simply to press or knead something, but elting-moulds are the ridges of Earth formed when a field is plowed.


Elucubrate literally means “to work by candlelight,” but it’s typically used in a looser sense meaning “to work late into the night.” In other words, “to burn the midnight oil.” Someone who does just that is an elucubrator, while the work that you end up producing is an elucubration.


An embusqué is someone who tries to avoid military service, and in particular, someone who takes a clerical job just to avoid joining up. The word is derived from a French word meaning “to ambush,” in the figurative sense of someone hiding in plain sight.


The proper word—originally used only in reference to crystallography—for a mirror image or reflection.


As well as meaning simply “to get dark,” you can use the verb endarken to mean “to obscure” or “to cast a shadow over” something.


The opposite of being divinely inspired is endemoniasm—namely, inspiration from a demon, or from the Devil himself.


If you’re endoloured, then you’re consumed by grief.


If something is ensnarled, then it’s tangled up in knots.


An 18th-century word meaning “familiar to, or common to, everyone.”


If you hate insects, you’re entomophobic. It’s one of a number of E-phobiasin the language, including eophobia (fear of the dawn), epistolophobia (the hatred of receiving mail), eisoptrophobia (the fear of mirrors or reflections), and enetophobia (hatred of pins).


When someone stops what they’re saying to go back and change a word to an even stronger one (as in, “I’m very happy—no, ecstatic—to be here”), that’s called epanorthosis. It derived from a Greek word meaning “correction.”


Literally meaning “explain in detail,” an epexegesis is an additional clarifying comment, often tagged onto the end of a more detailed or ambiguous sentence. That is to say, it’s the kind of sentence that often begins, “that is to say.”


An isosceles triangle would be an example of an equicrural shape: it literally means “equal-sized legs.”


The substance that makes leaves green is of course chlorophyll, but the pigment that takes over in the autumn and makes leaves look red is erythrophyll.


Coined by JRR Tolkien, a eucatastrophe is the opposite of a catastrophe—a sudden and unexpected event of happiness or good fortune.


Derived from Ancient Greek and mentioned in the writings of Aristotle, the word eutrapely or eutrapelia originally referred to ease of conversation, repartee, or someone’s ability to talk to anyone on any subject. By the time it first began to appear in English in the 16th century however, eutrapely had become a more general term meaning “courtesy,” “urbanity,” or “sophistication.”


To move evenendwaysis to move in an unfaltering straight line, from one place to another.


While to calcate is to stamp with your heel, to exculcate, derived from the same root, is to trample or tread something down.


The word explode originally meant “to jeer a performer off the stage,” but the collective hissing and booing of a dissatisfied audience is called exsibilation.


An extranean is a stranger, or someone who does not belong to your family or friends despite being in close proximity to you. The term once referredto pupils who join the school a year later, typically from another school or area.


To wander about with no particular purpose is to extravage.


Eye-water is just another name for eye lotion or eye-wash, but in 18th-centuryEnglish it came to refer to weak or watered-down alcohol. Whereas…


… an eye-opener, as well as being something surprising or remarkable, was a very strong alcoholic drink in Victorian slang.


A Tudor-period word for an employee (originally a maid or servant) who is only hard working when they’re being observed by their boss.


A 19th-century slang word for an eyelash. This article originally ran in 2016.

When someone stops what they’re saying to go back and change a word to an even stronger one (as in, “I’m very happy—no, ecstatic to be here”), that’s called “epanorthosis.”

Source: 40 Excellent E-Words To Enlarge Your Vocabulary | Mental Floss

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How Wikipedia Works – Know how

¿Sábes cómo funciona Wikipedia? ¿Sabías que virtualmente cualquier persona puede editarla, hacer referencias y mejorarla? Conoce toda la información de cómo funciona la wikipedia y practica tu listening de inglés con este video. 

Wikipediala enciclopedia libre, fue creada el 15 de enero de 2001 como proyecto de edición abierta que pretendía agilizar el desarrollo de la hoy extinta enciclopedia con revisión por pares Nupedia, y ha crecido continuamente en número de artículos y de ediciones idiomáticas hasta la actualidad.


Wikipedia es una versión electrónica de las enciclopedias en papel. Los primeros pasos en la utilización de artilugios automáticos que superasen la imprenta como medio más ágil y práctico de acceso a los contenidos enciclopédicos se dan en la década de 1930 con la colección de ensayos y discursos World Brain (El cerebro del mundo, aún no publicada en español) (1937) y la visión futurista Memex, de Vannevar Bush, de utilizar microfilmes para almacenar toda la información relevante de una persona (idea expuesta posteriormente en su obra de 1945 As we may think). Otro hito importante fue el proyecto Xanadú (1960), de Ted Nelson.

Con el desarrollo de Internet, se ha intentado desarrollar enciclopedias en red en múltiples ocasiones. El líder del movimiento de software libreRichard Stallman, propuso en 1999 la creación de una Enciclopedia Libre y Universal, y declaró que la noticia del nacimiento de Wikipedia era emocionante.[cita requerida] Desde el portal de la Fundación del Software Libre se invita a los usuarios a visitar y contribuir en Wikipedia.[cita requerida]

Wales cita el ensayo “El uso del conocimiento en la sociedad“, escrito por el economista y filósofo de la escuela austriaca y Premio Nobel de Economía Friedrich Hayek, que leyó cuando era estudiante,[1]​ como «central» para su pensamiento acerca de «cómo gestionar el proyecto Wikipedia»[2][3][4][5]​ Hayek argumenta que la información está descentralizada —cada individuo solo conoce una pequeña fracción de lo que se conoce colectivamente— y, como resultado, las decisiones se toman mejor por aquellos con conocimientos locales, en lugar de por una autoridad central.[2][6]​ Wales reconsideró el ensayo de Hayek en la década de 1990, mientras estaba leyendo sobre el movimiento de código abierto, que abogaba por la distribución gratuita de software libre. Fue particularmente conmovido por el ensayo “La catedral y el bazar” escrito por uno de los fundadores del movimiento, Eric S. Raymond y adaptado más adelante en un libro. Wales afirmó que ese ensayo «abrió [sus] ojos a las posibilidades de colaboración masiva».[1]


En marzo de 2000 Jimbo Wales creó Nupedia, un proyecto de enciclopedia libre basado en un ambicioso proceso de revisión por pares, diseñado para hacer sus artículos de una calidad comparable a la de las enciclopedias profesionales gracias a la participación de eruditos (principalmente doctorandos y académicos), a los que se proponía colaborar de modo no remunerado.

Debido al lento avance del proyecto, el 15 de enero de 2001 se creó un wiki (UseModWiki) vinculado a Nupedia cuya finalidad inicial era agilizar la creación de artículos de forma paralela, antes de que estos pasaran al sistema de revisión por expertos. Existe cierta polémica entre los fundadores de Nupedia sobre quién propuso originalmente la idea de usar un wiki a Jimbo Wales, si Larry Sanger o bien una tercera persona,[7]​ pero el caso es que el éxito de aquel “pequeño proyecto paralelo” (Wikipedia) acabó eclipsando a Nupedia, que dejó de funcionar en 2003.

Después de Wikipedia en inglés, la segunda edición en ser creada fue Wikipedia en alemán, el 16 de marzo siguiente, pero inicialmente solo fue usada para pruebas de Wikipedia en catalán, que fue la segunda en contener artículos. Desde entonces se han ido creando ediciones en muchos más idiomas.

Harry Geitner, editor responsable de la Nupedia, pasó a colaborar con Wikipedia y trabajó activamente en la organización y directrices del proyecto. Sus aportes marcaron un importante sesgo en la orientación inicial del proyecto, hasta que se desvinculó del proyecto en febrero de 2002. En la actualidad Wales lleva las riendas de la iniciativa, tanto en tiempo dedicado como en recursos, y es miembro de la Fundación Wikimedia, que se ocupa de las tareas de supervisión. En este momento no existe un editor responsable, ni tampoco hay personal contratado a cargo del proyecto. Wikipedia funciona gracias a la contribución voluntaria de miles de wikipedistas.

Inicialmente, no existía el registro de usuarios; toda colaboración se realizaba en forma anónima.

El 20 de septiembre de 2004 Wikipedia alcanzó el millón de artículos en 105 idiomas y causó una considerable atención por parte de los medios de comunicación. El artículo un millón se publicó en hebreo y aborda el tema de la enseña oficial de Kazajistán.

Para el 1 de marzo de 2006 Wikipedia en inglés había sobrepasado el millón de artículos y el 8 de marzo del mismo año Wikipedia en español llegó a los cien mil.

En octubre de 2011, Wikimedia anunció el lanzamiento de Wikipedia Zero, una iniciativa para permitir el acceso gratuito móvil (datos) a la Wikipedia en países del tercer mundo a través de colaboraciones con operadores de telecomunicaciones móviles.[8][9]

El 17 de junio de 2015 la Fundación Princesa de Asturias le concedió su premio homónimo en la categoría de Cooperación Internacional.[10]

Si quieres mejorar tu tu inglés de manera rápida, contactanos y te platicamos cómo te ayudamos para aprender inglés más rápido y totalmente garantizado. Gracias a nuestra metodología única aprender es más sencillo y rápido.